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It returned two days later, bearing a strong anti-communist message, signed "Unbowed Pilsen." The bird, named Leaping Lena, was taken to the United States where it was celebrated as a Cold War hero.
and recruited Bavarian brewer Josef Groll (1813–1887) who produced the first batch of modern Pilsner beer on 5 October 1842.
Many allied themselves to the Nazi cause after 1933, in the hope that Adolf Hitler might be able to unite them with their German-speaking neighbours.
Following the Munich Agreement in 1938, Plzeň became literally a frontier town, after the creation of the Sudetenland moved the Third Reich borders to the city's outer limits.
The combination of pale colour from the new malts, Pilsen's remarkably soft water, Saaz noble hops from nearby Žatec (Saaz in German) and Bavarian-style lagering produced a clear, golden beer which was regarded as a sensation.
In 1869 Emil Škoda started up the Škoda Works, which became the most important and influential engineering company in the country and a crucial supplier of arms to the Austro-Hungarian Army.In 1468, the town acquired a printing press; the Trojan Chronicle (Kronika trojánská in Czech), the first book published in Bohemia, was printed on it.Emperor Rudolf II made Plzeň his seat from 1599–1600.Other Third Army units liberated major portions of Western Bohemia.The rest of Czechoslovakia was liberated from German control by the Soviet Red Army.